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But eventually you must make a move -- and then the fighting begins. Even the most brilliant campaigns suffer occasional setbacks, and it is during those moments of crisis that the true mettle of the marketing team is tested. A company that fails to surmount one can slow to a halt, even atrophy, for many years. Just surviving such a test usually means only a return to the status quo ante. But to triumph over such a crisis, to turn possible disaster into a resounding victory, can accelerate a company's growth in a burst of sustained business momentum. Meanwhile, such an unexpected turnabout can demoralize the competition or -- at the very least -- cause considerable discomfort.

Winning, beating the odds, converting defeat to victory -- that's the point of marketing. The stories of such marketing coups are our business legends -- what Iacocca did at Chrysler and what Townsend did at Avis. It is what Apple is trying to do right now in office automation. And it is what Intel had to do in I know, because I was there. My career depended on a single victory. Intel Corporation was founded in by Robert Noyce, the inventor of the integrated circuit, Gordon Moore, a legendary high-technology scientist and business strategist, and Andrew Grove, a now famous manager and executive.

Intel owed its success Ben Rosen once called it the most important firm in America to inventive genius, an ability to convert ideas into products such as the famous microprocessor , Grove's dynamic management, and, not least, a talent for developing new markets for its new products. All those factors combined to give Intel one of the most remarkable starts in American business history. But not all of Intel's success derived from intrinsic strengths. For a long time the company had also benefited from the benign neglect of more powerful firms in the same industry.

Like many hot young electronics firms, Intel had focused on new markets, pursuing a path the industry giants had no interest in following. But the day of reckoning had come.

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By the mids Intel's achievements had become an embarrassment to its competitors and the target for most of the largest semiconductor manufacturers in the United States, Europe, and Japan. Intel still prospered but was losing ground in some important markets and was threatened in others. Intel once had been the leading supplier of 1,bit "dynamic" RAMs random access memory chips, but had lost that leadership to a start-up company.

We had been unable to regain that momentum. A number of companies also had jumped into the EPROM erasable programmable read only memory chip market and were applying pressure. Finally, by , Intel's strong position in the microprocessor market, though relatively intact, had suffered inroads from a start-up company named Zilog, and from Motorola, the latter a number of times Intel's size. By late Intel was under full siege. Such attacks were nothing new to Intel, and the company had won more than its share of battles.

But this threat was different in one very important way: The product line in dispute, the model bit microprocessor family, was the linchpin of the entire corporation. A number of multimillion-dollar Intel businesses depended on its success. In particular, the sale of every Intel and its companion chip, the 8-bit , pulled along large numbers of peripheral, memory, and controller chips worth in total ten times as much as the Whenever an sale was lost, the departing customer would frequently turn to the new supplier for those ancillary products.

On top of that, Intel had two very profitable systems businesses dependent upon the success of the Les Vadasz and I had been co-general managers of the microprocessor division in when the was being planned. At the time we decided to make the product an extension of the then-successful family. That created some design problems, but they were more than counterbalanced, in our opinion, by the resulting access to a large existing software library. The was introduced to the market in As the first high-performance, fully supported bit microprocessor, it had quickly gained the top position in the market, capturing the lead from older and less capable products supplied by Texas Instruments and National Semiconductor.

In response, Zilog and Motorola prematurely announced their own "paper tigers" products that existed only on paper. Customers loved the features of the proposed products and were not too happy about some of the compromises Intel had made, so it was obvious that when and if those microprocessors ever emerged from the drawing boards, they would be a serious threat. Meanwhile, as Intel had grown, the management had reorganized, and I left the microprocessor business to become the general manager of one of Intel's microprocessor-based systems businesses.

Needless to say, any success I would have in my new role would be vitally dependent upon the survival of the So I remained in close touch with the 's marketing effort. The marketing and sales group was suffering from apathy brought on by shattered morale. It was demoralizing to have one customer after the next lecture you about your employer's failures and your competitors' strengths. Many customers actually relished the opportunity to stick it to the famous Intel. Some of the younger marketing people couldn't take the humiliation.

It was easier to work on other projects. Being abused by customers -- and even Intel's own sales force -- wasn't fun. Management encouragement had been ineffective at correcting what was becoming a destructive situation. In late November Don Buckout, an Intel field engineer on Long Island, sent management an incisive and desperate eight-page telex.

The discussion of Buckout's telex at the executive staff meeting the following Tuesday couldn't have been more unpleasant. By the end of it I had either volunteered or been asked by Grove to run a marketing task force charged with solving the problem. That was the beginning of Operation Crush.

We met continuously for three days. Among the "volunteers" were Jim Lally, the general manager of board products; Rich Bader, one of Jim's product managers; Dave House, the general manager of the microprocessor division; Jeff Katz, the marketing manager for microprocessors; Casey Powell, the regional manager to whom Buckout reported; and Regis McKenna, Silicon Valley's lop marketing consultant.

That was the first thing we did right.

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We did not delegate the job. I appreciate that this runs counter to the principles in most textbooks on management and that many managers become trapped following such a path, but in the current crisis delegating responsibility had already failed. And, I would argue, the great marketing crusades of the past were led by the top people in the company: Lee Iacocca and Avis's Robert Townsend, to name two. The first thing the group did was agree on the problem. That wasn't hard. There were three of us in the race: Motorola was going to be first, Zilog second, and Intel was headed for obscurity.

All of us agreed that if we whipped Motorola, we would win. For that reason we made our goal not simply regaining market share but restoring Intel's preeminence in the market. In the semiconductor business, the only market share you really care about is the one you maintain when the market is mature.

To accomplish that, a firm must convince sufficient numbers of customers to "design in" that is, integrate your chip into their products.

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So the task force established a goal of achieving two thousand "design wins" by the end of That was the second thing we did right. We had set a shockingly high goal. Knowledgeable observers thought a few hundred wins more reasonable. We decided that every salesman could get one win a month. By simple arithmetic, the number two thousand fell out. We trusted our people to come through. As the discussion developed, we increasingly talked about what our real objective was.

It was Jim Lally who articulated the need to "crush the competition. It captured the essence of our attitude. It also left no doubt about the single-mindedness of our purpose. The code name Crush was never supposed to be made public. Roger Borovoy, the corporate counsel, was concerned about the implications of such a loaded word. But the name already was spreading like wildfire throughout the company.

Everyone loved it. We had been kicked around enough; Crush signaled that we now meant to stand our ground and fight aggressively. And it meant we were going to win. We decided to kick off the campaign before Christmas, not waiting until the first of the year. Now that we had a concept, there was no reason to defer action because of the holidays.

Hours were spend discussing customers and why we had won or lost various accounts. By the end of the discussion we had concluded that the customers could be divided into three general groups: hardware-oriented companies; software-oriented firms wanting to use Intel software; and software-oriented companies wanting to write their own software. We were doing well with the first two groups but nearly always lost out with the third.

That exercise all but confirmed what we already knew: Software-oriented customers, many of whom had migrated from the minicomputer field, wanted a microprocessor "architecture" design with precisely the features we lacked and Motorola and Zilog had. Moreover, those computer people did not really understand the advantages of the Intel products and were not crediting us with our strengths.


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Thus, we decided, what we needed was a new product that better fitted the needs of our customer base. We would have to invent one. Everyone on the task force accepted the harsh truth that Motorola and Zilog had better devices. If Intel tried to fight the battle only by claiming our microprocessor was better than theirs, we were going to lose. To get more specific information on three marketing areas, we conducted separate surveys and interviews. By design, we studied personal selling within a single company, distribution channels within an industry, and advertising in a cross-section of high-technology industries.

This research procedure allowed us to achieve a balance among company-specific, industry-specific, and industrywide perspectives. The company-specific study focused on the high-tech business-to-business sales force of a single, but premier, comprehensive computer producer-marketer. We directed the industry-specific inquiry to robotics more than one-forth of the major U.

The advertising study included one-half of the top high-technology industrial advertisers and a sampling of high-tech consumer-product companies. Another example of market specificity is Genetic Systems Corp. Its short-term goals identify the need for products to diagnose infectious diseases and cancer. Intermediate goals focus on automated products to identify blood types, and its long-term goals pertain to products for treating infectious diseases and cancer. For example, our data show that executives extensively use traditional research techniques, such as concept testing, product prototypes, and market tests.

These efforts can help create new markets by applying lab breakthroughs to largely unperceived buyer needs. A latent demand for in-home pregnancy tests may have existed for centuries, but biotechnology made these tests feasible and inexpensive. Researchers have also been successful in deriving other low-cost diagnostic tests for hepatitis, prostate cancer, and venereal disease. Yet only a few years ago the commercial potential of the underlying technology appeared poor.

Certainly, few businesses would have bet that such diagnostic tests would lead to a major new medical market so soon. Our research indicates that innovation-driven high-technology companies rely on qualitative marketing research techniques.


  1. Prerequisite(s).
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  6. Carbohydrate chemistry. : Monosaccharides, disaccharides, and specific oligosaccharides a review of the recent literature published during 1986.
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  8. Their managers place little stock in the mathematically based methods of marketing research that more mature companies use—methods requiring an abundance of data from a representative sampling for drawing statistical inferences. And primary data from traditional interviews of prospective buyers or users are of dubious value in answering questions about possible products or applications resulting from new technologies.

    Our studies have led us to identify four general types of high-technology companies, according to their degree of organizational complexity:. The high-technology company that is not part of a larger corporation and is engaged basically in one industry for example, Prab Robots.

    It may be a fledgling venture or a market leader. A traditional consumer or industrial enterprise with one high-tech division or subsidiary. A high-technology division or subsidiary that is but one of several or many such units in a company. The corporation is almost exclusively Hazeltine or partly United Technologies involved in high technology. For instance, semiconductor and computer concerns have formed the Microelectronics Computer Research Corporation in Austin, Texas, to derive technologies for use by the member companies and for licensing the technologies to nonmembers.

    They may even be directed from corporate headquarters. A high-tech division in a diversified corporation may be able to give a sister division in a different industry or in a different market the technology it needs to develop new market niches or entire markets. The rewards of cross-pollination of ideas among divisions come from triggering previously undiscovered market applications or correcting competitive shortcomings in product quality.

    Defense Systems offers defense-oriented electronics to the U. In contrast, Aircraft sells aircraft wheels, brakes, and brake-control systems to both commercial and military aircraft manufacturers. In the early s, Defense Systems transferred integrated circuit technology to Aircraft. Later, at the end of the s, Defense Systems transferred digital design technology. An official of Corning Glass Works provided us with a better illustration of a diverse cross-divisional application. In the s, Corning, a leading specialty glass materials company, developed a thermal shock-resistant glass-based material ideal for missile nose cones.

    It was able to withstand the heat and stress of going from ground zero to space and atmospheric re-entry, even at supersonic speeds. While this in itself was a major breakthrough, the late R. In , he introduced versatile Corning Ware cookware that could go directly from the freezer to the oven or stovetop. However, the story does not end there. Some 20 years later, another property of this original nose cone material—its transparency to radio signals—permitted an extension of its consumer application as an ideal cookware for microwave ovens.

    The linkage in market-driven situations needs to be formal and carefully designed; a high-tech marketing team is a must.

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    Face-to-face, in-person interaction and an agenda for meetings are most productive. The approach of Micom Systems, Inc. To build the team orientation needed, the two activities merged, as Frankel explains. Within Marketing and Development, we have three assistant vice presidents who manage, on a product-line basis, the marketing and development activities of their respective product areas.

    Within each product-line organization, we have [an] individual marketing and development team… At Micom, marketing and development groups work together to define new directions and solutions to the needs of their specific product areas. Once agreement is made, however,…the marketing activity proceeds with the classical marketing functions while the engineering team begins the engineering process. So, in summary, the marketing and development teams work together on the front and tail end of projects, and work independently from project go-ahead to the product testing and evaluation phase.

    Of course, if the development project does not proceed according to plan i. The interface needs of innovation-driven high-technology companies are different. The possibilities for applications may be less obvious or so numerous that the company must establish priorities for exploitation. Biotechnology again provides an example.

    Bachelor of Technology Management (High Technology Marketing) With Honours

    Marketable opportunities for gene-splicing seem vast, including cancer therapy, disease-free orchids, and who knows what else. Should firms invest? How to make these investments effective? What are the specific features of customer behavior on the high-tech market after purchase? What instruments ensure the success of such relations? Are there any success stories and best practices?

    You will learn from faculty with strong academic credentials as well as diverse professional experience. Classes are small enough to allow for close personal contacts with lecturers and course mates.

    Advanced Technology Marketing |

    The highly diversified student composition on the program transforms projects and teamwork into precious multi-cultural learning experiences that develops skills, vital in a career in marketing management. The teaching approach is applied and participatory: real projects with businesses are carried out so students are operational, and employable.

    The specialization tracks, the large number of electives on offer and the internship mean you can customize the program to suit yourself and your career in high-tech marketing. On graduation, you will be able to approach marketing with intelligence and creativity; manage uncertainty; make better marketing decisions by understanding consumer behavior; account for marketing budgets and return on marketing investments; analyze the profitability of customers and segments; generate profit in markets internationally; use analytics as a source of real competitive advantage; understand strategic brand and product management.

    This program opens the door to a range of careers in marketing, sales and business development: marketing research, trend agencies, communication and events agencies, marketing or product managers, trade marketing or category managers, sales and business development, key account managers, and purchasing. The program also prepares students for careers in large firms where they will begin in sales development and later move into marketing positions. In an SME or start-up, graduates would be ideally placed to become a sales and marketing manager with a strong business development approach and especially suited to jobs in international market development.

    Discover all the ways that Keller can help you take advantage of emerging opportunities and successfully meet the challenges and demands of today's highly competitive business environments.