Manual Pherekydes of Syros

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The of citations of just 'Pherecydes' suggests frequency did not result, of a distinguishing epithet in these citations from its omission scholiasts. FGr Hist 3 T5, F, 90d, , , Erbse, It is evident that at least three of these authors were directly acquainted with the works of Eratosthenes and repeated his opinion. Dionysius in his own chronological research 1. Hyginus in De astronomiasimply reproduced in Latin prose Eratosthenes' Katasterismoi. Agis Strabo: FGr Hist 3 F18b, 48, , , In citing Therecydes' Strabo may have been following the usage of his sources.

One of Strabo's citations F occurs in a section of his work which was drawn from Apollodorus' Catalogueof Ships. Apollodorus in his On the Gods simply cited "Pherecydes". FGr Hist F Athenaeus' work is representative of a literary genre that was popular among Alexandrian scholars. See Cohn, ; H. Schulz, Herodianos, RE 8 , One of Athenaeus' citations was an excerpt from the work of the earlier Alexandrian scholar Istrus third century B. Jacoby, some 'ancient historians' were can be theologoi In fact, philosophers of Athens, Pherecydes historians'.

Jacoby's misapprehension". In the Hellenistic the works of the 'ancient period entered ancient into discussions. Some myths for understanding Stoics maintained that these myths were an important source of if interpreted such knowledge, The Stoic Strabo allegorically Cicero's On the Nature of the Gods provides further dialogue dence for the examination of the works of 'ancient historians' Hellenistic Cicero who the philosophers. Cicero understood and theologus to signify both the ancient mythographers to the Hellenistic of myth Lamberton, According interpreters divine genealogies from the 'ancient Cicero, these theologi compiled term.

Among cient writings', Cicero cited the antiqui historia for the genealogy of historia are certain These to Dionysius' gods.

On Piety also demonstrates Philodemus' that the works of 'ancient historians' were examined in the study of ancient theobgia. On Piety was a Epicurean treatise sophers' opinions concerning the gods. Philodemus cited myths, and he also Athens Dionysius reported Th. It follows then that they would have recounted to a certain extent the genealogy of the gods. Hermes 55 , 40 R. First, were which works existed, that two separate composed the style of Second, respectively. Syrian and Athenian does not to the Syrian and Athenian ments attributed There differ.

Syros author Third, the information concerning most ancient testimony.

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Diels accepted is questionable. Moreover, elsewhere, he also the Athenian. Luetke studied only those fragments. The restored text is reproduced by Schibli, Jacoby, , note Gomperz in his publication of On Piety did not restore Pherecydes' name to the passage. Gomperz, ed. Neither did C. Bowra accept this reading of the text in his edition of the fragments of Pindar, who is cited in the passage.

Bowra, Pindari Carmina Oxford , According Ionic prose, often using the present tense West described to the Syrian as simple, unassigned style of the fragments in the of the stylistic homogeneity affected Ionic prose Because and Syrian, J. Geffcken of the Athenian that fragments proposed all these fragments from the composition of a single originated the author. Geffcken observed that the characterized by its simple paratactic and primitive repetition with Geffcken's in to the was style of the fragments sentence use of the structure, of words and phrases, just as position style the used and of the but varied more maintained Athenian's that and.

Syrian's fragments. According Lilja, more complex sentences than the Syrian, that the Athenian Lilja also maintained rather than while. These perceived once however, differences, disappear modern one eliminates editors' two sets of distinction between The Athenian's more varied use of subordinate clauses fragments. Lilja also argued that the Syrian alternated the while the Athenian past and present tenses in a narrative, simply in the present. Yet she also observed sentences that strung together are numerous, among the early prose writers whose fragments only of and of Athens interAcusilaus, Pherecydes Syros, Pherecydes wove the past and present tenses into the same narrative.

In one of the the subordinate in the aorist clause is Syrian's fragments followed the main in clause the stressed order this by present; Lilja 44 K. Luetke, Pherekydea G?

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Luetke examined those fragments attributed to the Athenian by M? Von Fritz also saw stylistic similarities in the fragments of the Athenian and the Syrian, but he did not equate the two. Von Fritz, 83, note Heracleitus and adjec-. The stumbling block to this theory, than "philosophers".

Yet Lilja to to the Syrian as sufficient also considered the 16 lines assigned between these the differences reach conclusions stylistic concerning fragments It would and the lines ascribed to the Athenian Lilja, Lilja noted that both often repeated words and served the "philosopher" to Lilja, repetition phrases; but, according while "historian" the to emphasize only desired to clarify key ideas, taken from epic; but, language for emphasis, the "philosopher" epic words and phrases adopted which was the epic language while the "historian" simply repeated was in in which he retelling myths prose Lilja, , ingrained for different do not constitute evidence Such Similarly, both borrowed styles.

Pherecydes ty the of a single work in ten books entitled with the composition. Pherekydes Babyos. Theokrasiais a rare word, only appearing in. The fragments of whether to the Athenian or the Syrian conTherecydes' assigned firm written which are excerpts are of attest to prose, Therecydes' the existence of ten books. The scholia to the Argonautica provide with specific book numbers None many citations of Therecydes' of these citations mention a title, but one scholion does cite the in Ionic and the fragments citations without Theogonia of Therecydes' Schol.

It can therefore be concluded that the Theogonia was the title of the work whose ten books are cited in the scholia. Since the Theogonia was an alternative cited in the scholia Therecydes' title for the must Syrian's Theologia, the refer to Pherecydes of Syros. All those. Neoplatonists used the term to mean "merging with god". Some Neoplatonist commentator may have applied the term to interpret some aspect of Pherecydes' work, and the word became identified with the title. The other titles arose similarly. The title Heptamychosrefers to the mychoi mentioned in Pherecydes' cosmology.

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The title Theogoniaconcerns the birth of gods which was also described in Pherecydes' work. See West, Early GreekPhilosophy, Schibli, Book Two: 2. Book Three: 1. Book Four: 3. Book Five: 3. Book Six: 2. Book Seven: 4. Book Eight: 1. Book Nine: 1. Book Ten: 1. Jacoby argued that the Suda incorrectly attributed to the Syrian a work in ten books. This information, according to Jacoby, crept into the article on the Syrian from the article which followed concerning an Athenian Pherecydes who reportedly lived earlier than the Syrian and wrote about Attic archaiobgiain ten books.

Jacoby demonstrated that this Pherecydes was not the same as Eratosthenes' Pherecydes; the former's work was either a forgery or a false citation from the later Hellenistic period. Jacoby, , note 6; There is another possible explanation for the same number of books attributed to both authors.

A clever forger would have bestowed upon his work the same number of books as the genuine work of the Syrian. Hellenistic authors likened their own invented authorities to famous writers so as to increase their credibility. See Fehling, These names were interchangeone work often had several titles These titles were which contained of Acusilaus fragments in a work which The a theogony indicate as well as heroic that he composed scholar Didymus en-. Alternative Hist and the the 2 Tl, 4, F The genealogies, was simply another title for this work.

Historial, therefore, title for this work since its fragThe Theologia was an appropriate a compendium of Greek ments suggest that Pherecydes prepared the gods and heroes. He recounted the deeds of such adventures as the described such Perseus, mythical and related the divine exploits of Zeus The theologia. It was to uncover the to according philosopher, The of these meaning myths.

According that this Pherecydes a work which Diogenes 1. FGr Hist 1 T3, F, 7a, 8, The Historial was also a generic title for the works of Hellanicus. Von Fritz, Lamberton, Porphyry was indebted to Numenius for his allegorical interpretation of Pherecydes' work. Edwards, Plotinus 5.

Proclus in??. D, a number of writers described nigmatodes. The Neoplatonists' allegorical interpretation of myth included both cosmological and heroic myths. Proclus understood the Trojan Epic Cycle as an allegory for the descent of the soul into matter and its return. Proci, in R. Lamberton Diogenes' does not necessarily contradict the this composition. The word biblion of the Suda concerning testimony also related was applicable to a multi-volume work Just as some Hellenistic scholars denied that Pythagoras and Tha?

Greeks He was an "historian" in the educated recounted actual throughout antiquity and other of the distant considered early prose past Other authorities ascribed a prose work by Pythagoras to Lysis of Tarentum. See D. The number of works attributed to Tha? Didymus reportedly wrote books. Veyne, Bickermann, Or? According to Dionysius of Halicarnassus Th. Ancient literary critics who analyzed literary works about the Heroic Age recognized the stories of heroes as accounts of historical events, only designating those stories as myths which seemed fabulous or impossible, such as the transformation of men.

Although the term in this case the word sungrapk? Hellenistic scholars identified all the the other equated cient scholar first prose writers with the first historians mentioned as historians and apparently first prose writers No anthe philosopher Anaximander as the first a prose work and this recognition See Sextus Empiricus Ad. Gram 1. Pherekydes-, 61 Besides Pherecydes of Syros, Hecataeus, Cadmus, and Acusilaus were listed as the first prose writers and historians as well. The Suda identified Hecataeus as the first to write a history in prose, while Strabo 1. Cadmus was named as the first historian Suda s.

Kadmos Pandionis;s. Pherekydes; Pliny HN 7. Acusilaus was listed as one of the first historians Suda Pliny?? Akousilaos; J. De or. Porphyry recognized Pherecydes of Syros as the first prose writer and apparently did not recognize any other writer with the same name. Edwards, , note This work existed since Theophrastus quoted from it.

See Diels-Kranz 12 A9; Kirk, Pherecydes of Syros and Hecataeus received credit as the first prose writers even though they lived later. The Suda s. Ps-Lucian Macr. Helladius in Phot. Jacoby either ignored or dismissed such references, concluding that these later writers had confused the Syrian with the Athenian. Such a scenario would have been highly unlikely if indeed Hellenistic scholars had universally recognized two distinct authors with the same name. Eusebius' source for his chronicle was the chronicle of Porphyry who was well acquainted with Alexandrian scholarship.

Helladius fourth century A. He theogony composed In antiauthor with such a reputation. The author of the Hesiodic Ehoiai in the middle of the sixth the this poem to be a continuation of century B. The fragments his work around the great that the author of this work organized families of and myths its patriarch Aristotle Hesiod which it into sections dividing of members clan the of each genealogy myth, such as Inachus or Atlas recounted beginning the with. Geneabgiai in its Alexandrian of three related Book one contained books.

Acusilaus also the myths and genealogies of the houses of Deucalion and The of Syros began with a Inachus Theobgia of Pherecydes as did the work of Acusilaus. Book one also treated the theogony, heroic descendants of the river gods Asopus and Peneius The summary of his Chrestomatheia in Photius FGr Hut 3 F Both Achilles and Ajax were descended from Asopus. FGr Hist 3 F60 with commentary; Hes. F West; West, Catalogue, ; Apollod. All Lapith kings were reportedly descended from Peneius.

He also discussed the descendants of Peneius in a fragment which, unfortunately, does not include a book number.

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See FGr Hist 3 F FGr Hist 3 F with commentary. See West, Catabgue, Hellanicus told the story of Niobe in his Atlantis. FGr Hist 4 F In book nine 'Pherecydes' recounted the descendants of Lacedaemon, the son of Zeus and Taygete, the daughter of Adas. FGr Hist 3 F39 with commentary. West, Catabgue, Book ten related the deeds of the twins Amphion and Zethus. FGr Hist 3 F, These two heroes were also descended from Atlas. See West, Jacoby, FGr Hist 3 F41 with commentary. Catalogue, 69 FGr Hist 3 F, with commentary.

Diodorus Siculus began his universal history 1. Philodemus in On Piety noted that Acusilaus and Pherecydes of Athens identified a different deity as the messenger of the gods.

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Gomperz, Strabo observed The scholia also put their. Acusilaus was accused of borrowing Age In antiquity by some critics, while others observed ily from Hesiod with Hesiod and corrected his errors Some modern Syros myths sopher, among through possiblity as the since most. In the phusikoi mythographers opinions side by side. See Schol. According to Clement of Alexandria Strom. The fragments dealing with heroic myths occur in the scholia.

Plato Smp. See FGr Hist 2 F The fragments substantiate these different assessments. However, Acusilaus placed the birth of Metis at an earlier stage in his theogony than did Hesiod. FGr Hist 2 F6; Hes. FGr Hut 2 F36; Hes. Yet Acusilaus disagreed with the author of the Ehoiai concerning the origins of the Arcadian house of Pelasgus. FGr Hist 2 F25; Hes. According to one doxographical tradition, Pherecydes of Syros made the earth the arche. Aristode Metaph. Ancient commentators undoubtedly made note of this shared view of Hesiod and Pherecydes since the doxographical tradition began with Theophrastus and the Peripatetics.

On the development of this tradition, see Diels, Modern an assigned innovative reflects the with to the Syrian and creative influence heroic same Pherecydes have mythographer The fragments of Hesiod Although Therecydes' description. According dated Pherecydes to the seventh century to enabled the sacrificial death Ephesians Pherecydes' Hermippus,. Kirk, Greek JHS 92 , FGr Hut 3 F, 13c; Hes. F38 , He was in total agreement with the Ehoiai in regard to the genealogy of the heroes Perseus and Proetus.

Therecydes' also invented a new stemma for Dictys and Polydectes which did not appear in the Ehoiai. FGr Hist 3 F4 with commentary; Hes. F8 West; West, Catabgue, Olymp, in Ab. For a general discussion of the chronology of the Messenian Wars, see R. This war between the the neighboring Magnesians can be dated to the seventh century B. Some later B. Acthe sixth century B. By placing Pherecydes' Olympiad would have dated Pherecydes' Dicaearchus Pythagoras' departure, and of the sixth century. See L. Burchner, Ephesos, RE 5 , ; Schibli, For the date of the two poets, see Str.

See Fraser, , Since Theopompus and Hermippus are the only known authors to tie Pherecydes with events of the seventh century B.

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  5. Diogenes Laertius 1. For Pythagoras' absence during the uprising at. The chronological of these different accounts of the accuracy account The earliest writers to discuss his Syrian's life is very questionable. Aristotle, Theopompus in the fourth century turies after their subject.

    Online Review # 25: Pherecydes - Linh hồn bất tử

    If one can therefore in Pherecydes' later work prompted what information conclusions account ancient his life, it will is the most reliable. Modern scholars as well in search of a terminus post quern have scrutinized certain fragments are certain for of the Athenian literary activity ments have been considered. Another Jacoby, is ca. Croton, see Iamb. This account can be traced back to the early Peripatetic biographers of Pythagoras.

    Aristoxenus F18 Wehrli described Cylon as a violent enemy of Pythagoras. Diodorus Siculus See Burkert, Arnaldo terminus post quern for the Darius' Persian expedition Clement of Alexandria. Of these three fragments, F is not only the key to deterF of Pherecydes of Syros, but also is the basis mining the chronology for the hypothesis that Pherecydes of Syros composed a both and heroic genealogies.

    The historical of the theogony implications are not as clear. The Attic deme mentioned other two fragments in F while existed prior to the reforms of Cleisthenes88 , in F59? In contrast, the citation F cerns lishes contains an historical a specific citation event which can of Pherecydes be dated. Thomas, , note 6.

    For a discussion of this expedition's date, see?. Whitehead, The Demes of Attica Princeton , Any one of these authors could have constructed a genealogy for Hippocrates and cited 'Pherecydes' for the genealogies of Heracles and Asclepius, which 'Pherecydes' did discuss. On Soranus, see F. Kind, Soranos, RE 3A , Areius was a physician who wrote a biography of Hippocrates and lived in the first century A.

    Wellman, Arms, RE 2 , Jacoby argued that Clement had confused the Syrian with the Pherecydes of Leros mentioned in the Suda. Jacoby determined that this Pherecydes was a Hellenistic writer based on the titles attributed to this author by the Suda. However, the Suda alone mentions this Pherecydes. It is possible that this Pherecydes is the invention of some late.

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    This fragment during Darius' campaign against the Scythians Darius with war after the Scythian king threatened with his army by sending him the latter's crossing of the Danube certain which Darius was symbolic message through objects to Herodotus told the same 4. In Herodotus' narrative this incident is followed to persuade the Ionians by the efforts of the Scythians the across the Danube to desert their Persian guarding bridge overlords the the Ionians, 4.

    Among only Miltiades, of the the Ionians to follow the advice of Chersonese, tyrant urged the The to of Scythians and liberate themselves from Persian domination. In 'Pherecydes' cated the Scythian proposal Miltiades' younger plea for the free' narrative Miltiades may have advobetween because of the friendship. In the Hellenistic period writers passed off their own works as the works of ancient wise men and cited non-existent books written by ancient sages. See West, OrphicPoems, ; Fehling, The ethnic of this fictional writer could have been derived from the work On Leros which the Suda assigned to this author.

    For a discussion of this genealogy, see J. Davies, Athenian Families Oxford , ; Thomas, To answer this even respected literary references their sub-. Conseof the Syrian's of period on the terminus post quern of B. Pherecydes' of the symbols, as preserved is more historisending by Clement, cally accurate than Herodotus' older This estidate is consistent with the intellectual Syrian's and Modern commentators have observed certain concepts in the theogony of Pherecydes.

    This period also Orphic beliefs were in circulation the literary activity of the early prose writers Hecataeus witnessed and Acusilaus whose works resembled Pherecydes' Theobgia in both their style and content. The testimony of Eratosthenes uish between two prose writers who led Jacoby shared and others the same name. On Chamaeleon's work as a literary critic and historian, see Chamaeleon F Wehrli with commentary. Dionysius of Halicarnassus Amm.

    Presented instead are 90 "F"-texts, each accompanied by full app. Eighteen other testimonia, without text or translation, are listed and briefly described as addenda. Although completeness has been the aim p. All matters of interest in the testimony receive comment in the first five chapters, but cross references keyed to individual words are not provided, although this would have been much appreciated by readers. One has to go to the Index of Passages Cited, s. Pherekydes, to find where individual F-texts are treated earlier in the book.

    There are of course points with which one could take issue. At present, e. I also feel that there remains more to be said about Zas' words during his marriage to Chthonie -- but if I can ever figure out what this is, it will be because I had Schibli's book to guide me. A final, sour note: Although Oxford University Press deserves creditfor their editorial care they include a plate of the Grenfell-Hunt papyrus containing the most important fragment, misprints are few, and apart from a slightly too-small type size for footnotes the layout is good , they get a Bronx cheer for the physical product: the paper is an unattractive off-white, which strains the reader's eyes.